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Although the variety of local climates on Earth is huge, as always, scientists have taken care of classifying them.
In this way we can get an approximate idea of what the weather is like in the different places of the planet and, consequently, better understand how its inhabitants, animals and plants live, since the climate determines their way of life.
There is something for everyone, from extremely dry climates to others that are too humid or even others that divide the year between the two extremes. There are very hot climates, others very cold, others mild and some, in high areas, with drastic variations after the day.
Tropical rainy climates
They are climates with temperatures of the coldest month above 18º C. They are located in areas that extend from Ecuador to the Tropics at heights below about 800 to 1000 m, with rains greater than 750 mm per year, they are also called mega-thermal climates or warm with forests. Within this group of climates three types can be recognized:
Equatorial: Hot and humid, with abundant rainfall all year round (rainforest). It occurs in the zones of the equatorial calm, between 10º S and 10º N. The temperature every month is between 20 and 27º C. The annual thermal amplitude is lower than 5º C. The relative humidity is very high. Precipitation exceeds 2000 mm annually, with a maximum in the equinoxes and a minimum in solstices.
Tropical: Hot subhumid with rains in summer (savanna). It occurs between the equatorial zone and in the hot deserts (between 10 and 25º of North and South latitude). Dry winter season that increases as we move away from Ecuador. Minimum rainfall greater than 100 mm.
Monsoon: Hot, humid, with abundant rains in summer, with monsoon influence. It occurs in Southeast Asia. It is the wettest climate on the planet, although it has a short dry winter season. Very strong seasonal contrast. Warm and humid summer and dry winter. The minimum rainfall exceeds 400 mm in a few months.
Temperate rainy climates
They are climates where the average temperature of the coldest month is between 18º C and -3º C and the average temperature of the warmest month is greater than 10º C.
The temperature of the coldest month of -3º C coincides with the limit of snow-covered areas for a month or more. In this group there are three different rainfall regimes that give rise to the three main types of climate:
Oceanic: It extends between 35 and 60º latitude, in the zone of influence of the cyclonic systems. They lack a dry season proper, although they have a summer minimum. The seasons are marked by temperatures. Towards the interior of the continents and towards the north and the south, it is modified significantly.
Chinese: Subtropical climate of the eastern facades of the continents in the temperate zone. Transition climate between tropical rainy and temperate continental. Continental influence is manifested in winter cold waves. Its summer is warm and humid of tropical type, winter soft and rainy, of Mediterranean type.
Mediterranean: Subtropical climate of the temperate zone, between 30 and 45º north and south latitude. Characterized by a marked summer drought. It is in the transition zone between wet and dry climates. The summer drought is motivated by the permanence of the subtropical anticyclone. Minimum rainfall of 30 mm.
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